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MAPS™ Diameter Protocol Emulator
(Diameter Interfaces Emulation)

MAPS™ Diameter Software Ver 6.4.22 | Download Now!


Background

The Diameter protocol is intended to provide a framework for Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA) applications such as network access, roaming, and IP mobility. The AAA protocols are used to determine whether the user is allowed to connect to the network (Authentication) and use a particular service (Authorization). It is also used to track network resources used by end-user for accurate billing (Accounting).

AAA protocols such as TACACS and RADIUS were initially deployed to provide dial-up PPP and terminal server access.  Over time, with the growth of the Internet and the introduction of new access technologies, including wireless, DSL, Mobile IP and Ethernet, routers and network access servers (NAS) have increased in complexity and density, putting new demands on AAA protocols. As a result, the Diameter protocol has been chosen as the AAA protocol in all next generation fixed and mobile IP- based networks (IMS, LTE). The Diameter protocol is a considerably more sophisticated protocol for mobility management, policy and charging (online and offline) control. It is designed to support data, services, and applications with extreme flexibility and is expected to replace all legacy protocols such as MAP, LDAP, Radius, and others.

Overview

Within LTE-IMS network, MAPS™ Diameter can simulate S6a, S6d, S13, Cx/Dx, Gx, Rx, Sh, and Gy/Ro interfaces and test network elements such as the MME (Mobility Management Entity), HSS (Home Subscriber Server), AF (Application Function), PCRF (Policy and Charging Rules Function), CSCF (Call Session Control Function), SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node), PCEF (Policy and Charging Enforcement Function), EIR (Equipment Identity Register), PDN GW (Packet Data Network Gateway), AS (Application Server), CTF (Charging Trigger Function), and OCS (Online Charging System).

The application is available as -

  • MAPS™ Diameter (Item # PKS139) for S6a, S6d, S13, Cx, Dx, Gx, Rx, Sh, and Gy/Ro interfaces
    Other interfaces such as,  Rf, Dh,  Gq, Zh, Zn, Wa, Wd, Wx, Wm, Wg, Pr will also be supported by the application in near future.
    The MAPS™ Diameter gives the users the unlimited ability to edit messages on supported interfaces to support various procedures listed below. The application supports both SCTP (Stream Control Transmission) and TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) transport protocol layers for PSTN signalling messages over IP networks.

  • MAPS™ Diameter Emulator also includes powerful utilities like Message Editor, Script Editor, and Profile Editor which allow new scenarios to be created or existing scenarios to be modified using Diameter messages and parameters. "Message sequences" are generated through scripts. "Messages" are created using message templates.

    MAPS™ also supports an End-to-End 4G LTE Communications Network Labwith all components such as eNodeB, MME, Serving Gateway, PDN Gateway, HSS, SGSN, PCRF, PCEF, AF and others to simulate both E-UTRAN and EPC (Evolved Packet Core), allowing complete testing of the LTE network.

Possible applications include:

  • Simulate up to 500 Smartphones (UEs) powering up and down
  • Authenticate and confirm security procedures
  • Temporary addressing management for mobility and security

GL also provides a GUI based All-IP PacketScan Analyzer for on-line capture and decode of the Diamter signaling in real-time both during tests and as a stand-alone tracer for live systems.

Main Features

  • Supports simulation of real-time LTE network using “MAPS 4G Wireless Lab Suite”.
  • Emulator can be configured as MME, HSS, PCRF, PCEF, CSCF, SGSN, PDN GW, EIR, AF, AS, CTF and OCS entities to emulate S6a, S6d, S13, Cx/ Dx, Gx, Rx, Sh, and Gy/Ro interfaces.
  • User-friendly GUI for generating hundreds of UE Signaling (Load Testing) over SCTP/TCP Layers.

  • Ready scripts for procedures over interfaces such as -
    • Procedures over S6a interface
      • Location Management, Subscriber Data Handling, Authentication, Fault Recovery, and Notification

    • Procedures over Rx interface
      • AA-Request/Answer, Re-Auth-Request/Answer, Abort-Session-Request/Answer, and Session-Termination-Request/Answer

    • Procedure over Gx interface
      • IPCAN Session Establishment and Modification

    • Procedure over S13 interface
      • ME (Mobile Equipment) Identity Check procedure

    • Procedure over Sh interface
      • User data handling procedures (User-Data-Update, Subscriber-Notification, User-Data-Pull)

    • Procedure over Gy/Ro interface
      • Immediate Event Charging (IEC), Event Charging with Unit Reservation (ECUR), Session Charging with Unit Reservation (SCUR)
      • CC-Request/Answer, Re-Auth-Request/Answer Procedures

  • Impairments can be applied to messages to simulate error conditions
  • Supports customization of call flows and message templates using Script editor and Message editor.
  • Provides call statistics and associated captured events and error events during call simulation.
  • Automation, Remote access, and Schedulers to run tests 24/7

Supported Protocols Standards




Diameter Protocol Stack
Supported Protocols Standard / Specification Used
Diameter IETF RFC 3588
S6a, S6d, S13 - 3GPP TS 29.272 V10.3.0
Rx - 3GGP TS 29214-b10
Cx/Dx - 3GPP TS 29.228 & TS29.229
Gx - 3GPP TS 29.212 & TS 23.203
Sh - 3GGP TS 29.328 & TS 29.329
Gy/Ro (DCCA)- 3GGP TS 32.225, 3GPP TS 32.299 and IETFRFC 4006
SCTP RFC 4960
TCP RFC793

S6a Interface

The S6a interface enables the transfer of subscriber related data between the MME and the HSS


MAPS™ Diameter Supporting S6a Interface Procedures
(Authentication, Location Update, Notification, Faulty Recovery Procedures)

MAPS™ Diameter at the MME end initiates the following S6a interface procedures:

  • initiates the Authentication procedure by sending Authentication-Information-Request message
  • initiates the Update Location procedure by sending Update-Location-Request message
  • initiates the Purge UE procedure by sending Purge-UE-Request message

Call Generation at MME Node (S6a Interface)


Call Reception at HSS Node (S6a interface)

Rx and Gx interfaces

The following illustrates the Authentication Authorization (AA) procedure in Diameter Rx interface and Gx interface:


MAPS™ Diameter Supporting Rx and Gx Interface Procedures
(Authentication, Authorization – AA Procedures)

The MAPS™ Diameter simulates 3GPP AAA (Authentication Authorization Procedure) call control messages between the AF and PCRF nodes. The following illustrates the call flow between the AF and PCRF nodes for AAA services over Rx interface:


Call Generation (Rx Interface)

Call Reception (Rx Interface)

Sh Interface

The following illustrates the User-Data-Handling procedure over Diameter Sh interface:


MAPS™ Diameter Supporting Sh Interface Procedures
(User-Data-Handling Procedures)

MAPS™ Diameter configured as AS (Application Server) function initiates a list of procedures (Diameter_DataUpdate, Diameter_DataPull, Diameter_Subs_Notif) and send requests to HSS.

 

Call Reception at the HSS terminal and the messages exchanged for the Sh interface Call Control procedures.


Call Control Procedures for Sh interface

Call Reception for Sh interface

Testing CTF and OCS in Gy/Ro interface

Both Gy and Ro interfaces define procedures for online charging in IMS & LTE networks. Ro interface is between IMS entity (CSCF) and Online Charging System (OCS) & Gy interface is between the PCEF (e.g., PDN GW) and the OCS.

The PCEF node in LTE network, and CSCF node in IMS network perform the role of a Charging Trigger Function (CTF) entity to issue charging events to an Online Charging System (OCS). The charging events can be immediate (IEC), event-based (ECUR), or session-based (SCUR). An Online Charging System (OCS), is a functional architecture that provides support for all three levels (service level, subsystem level, and bearer level) of online charging as depicted in the image below.

As provided in the figure below, MAPS™ Diameter can be configured as CTF or OCS, while the other acting as the DUT in the network. If MAPS™ Diameter is configured as CTF, it tests the DUT (OCS) by initiating the messages towards OCS.

Similarly, if MAPS™ Diameter is configured as OCS, it tests the DUT (CTF) by receiving the requests from CTF and sending responses back to the CTF (DUT).


MAPS™ Diameter as CTF and OCS

MAPS™ configured as CTF in GY/RO interface (Session Based Charging)

 Session Based Charging is a credit-control process that makes use of several interrogations: the first (INITIAL_REQUEST), a possible intermediate (UPDATE_REQUEST), and the final (TERMINATION_REQUEST). The first interrogation is used to reserve money from the user’s account and to initiate the process. The intermediate interrogations may be needed to request new quota while the service is being rendered. The final interrogation is used to exit the process.

The MAPS™ Diameter as CTF initiates a call by sending a CCR (Credit Control Request) message to the test the OCS. The CCA (Credit Control Answer) response message received back from the DUT (OCS) can be verified as shown in the message sequence window below.


Diameter Gy/Ro Interface Session based Charging Procedure

Call Generation Diameter DCCA Interface for Session Based Charging

MAPS™ configured as OCS in GY/Ro interface (Event Based Charging)

Event Based Charging is a  one-time event process used when there is no need to maintain any state in the Diameter credit-control server; for example, enquiring about the price of the service. The use of a one-time event implies that the user has been authenticated and authorized beforehand.

In CTF testing, MAPS™ Diameter is loaded with a set of inbuilt scripts to handle the incoming messages. MAPS™ Diameter acts as OCS and sends response to the one-time event based charging request as shown in the message sequence window below.


Diameter Gy/Ro Interface Session based Charging Procedure

Call Generation Diameter DCCA Interface for Session Based Charging

Screenshots

Screen Shot of Testbed Setup Configuration
Screenshot of Load Generation Parameters
Screenshot of Script Editor
Screenshot of Profile Editor
       
Screen Shot of Message Editor
Screen Shot of Incoming Call Handler
Screenshot of Script Contents and Script Flow
Screenshot of Capture Events
       
Screen Shot of Call Statistics and Status

Screen Shot of Message Statistics

Screen Shot of Events Log

Screen Shot of SCTP Link Status

 

Buyer's Guide

Please Note: The XX in the Item No. refers to the hardware platform, listed at the bottom of the Buyer's Guide, which the software will be running on. Therefore, XX can either be ETA or EEA (Octal/Quad Boards), PTA or PEA (tProbe Units), UTA or UEA (USB Units), HUT or HUE (Universal Cards), and HDT or HDE (HD cards) depending upon the hardware.

Item No. Item Description
PKS140 MAPS™ LTE S1 Emulator
PKS139 MAPS™ Diameter Emulator
PKS141 MAPS™ LTE X2-AP Emulator
PKS142 MAPS™ LTE eGTP Emulator
  GTP Mobile Traffic Options
ETH100
ETH101
ETH102
ETH103
PacketCheck™ 
Mobile Traffic Core – GTP
Mobile Traffic Core - Gateway
Mobile Traffic Core - Gb


 

 
 
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