Ethernet/IP Tester

Multi-Functional Ethernet Test Solution



IP WAN Emulator
(IPNetSim™, IPLinkSim™)

IP WAN Link Emulators test the performance of real networks by emulating impairments such as packet loss, packet corruption, packet duplication and packet reordering.

  Brochure

Overview

GL’s IP WAN Link Emulators test network performance by intentionally introducing impairments such as packet loss, packet corruption, packet duplication and packet reordering onto the network. Equipment manufacturers, network engineers, application developers and service providers can safely and reversibly introduce these impairments and study the subsequent behavior of the network or application.

IPNetSim™ is an optional application available within PacketExpert™ platforms (PXG100 and PXN100).

IPNetSim™ emulates a bidirectional WAN IP Link with a 10 Gbps or a 10/100/1000 Mbps full duplex link. For each direction, incoming traffic can be identified into separate user defined streams (up to 16 streams for 1 Gbps pipe and up to 4 streams for 10 Gbps pipe). These user defined streams can be modified to simulate network impairments.

IPLinkSim™ option with PacketExpert™ platforms (PXG100 and PXN100) also supports a single stream WAN IP Link with a 10 Gbps or a 10/100/1000 Mbps full duplex link, where all the incoming traffic is streamed as a single link which can be modified to simulate network impairments.

Both IPNetSim™ and IPLinkSim™ applications are available as rackmount appliance with PXN100 and mTOP™ (MT001). mTOP™ solution (MT001), is a 1U rack mount enclosure within which PacketExpert™ 10GX (PXN100) USB units can be stacked to provide high density GigE ports form factor solution for testing GigE switches, routers and network conditions. The multi-device appliance incorporates all the features of a single portable unit along with the necessary PC hardware with Windows® OS and remote accessibility via Ethernet Remote Desktop.

Simply connect PacketExpert™ IPNetSim™ or IPLinkSim™ unit in series with existing optical or electrical links and introduce any impairment type to test the various applications in the lab prior to live deployment.

Both IPNetSim™ and IPLinkSim™ provide several user-defined impairments such as bandwidth throttling, latency, jitter, packet loss, packet reordering, packet duplication, packet corruption, error insertion, etc. For example use bandwidth throttling to simulate a slow WAN link like RS232/DSL/Modem/T1/E1/T3/E3 etc. Or increase packet latency to simulate long network paths. In addition to the above listed impairment types, IPLinkSim™ can also emulate congestion in the network by generating additional background traffic.

Both IPNetSim™ and IPLinkSim™ supports Command line Interface (CLI) to access all the functionalities remotely using TCL clients and MAPS™ CLI client/server architecture.

Main Features

  • IPNetSim™ operates in multi-stream mode. Emulates bidirectional multiple WAN Link (16 streams on 1 Gbps ports and 4 streams on 10 Gbps ports) per unit
  • IPLinkSim™ operates in a single stream mode and emulates only 1 bidirectional WAN Link per unit
  • mTOP™ offer rack-mountable, high density, multi-device support. Stack multiple rack units to handle large number of ports. Scalable solution for unlimited number of ports
  • Emulate WAN conditions separately and independently on each direction. Acts as a transparent bidirectional link or a simple Ethernet Bridge for easy integration with any test setup

  • ”Stream Definition” feature in IPNetSim™
    • classifies traffic on each port into separate streams (up to 16 streams on 1 Gbps ports and 4 streams on 10 Gbps ports); Streams can be defined with various header fields like Source/Destination MAC Address, VLAN Id, MPLS Label, Source/Destination Ipv4 Address, Source/Destination UDP ports
    • Supports both Raw (bit level) and Packet mode (header fields) stream configurations
    • Up to 120 bytes wide stream definitions covering entire packet header from MAC to UDP and also Payload
    • For each stream definition, offset can be set to any byte within the packet (from 0 to 2047) which gives flexibility to define any fields within any protocol headers, and even the payload
    • Independent per stream WAN impairments helps emulate different WAN links in a single device
  • Detailed per stream Tx Rx frames statistics for easy performance monitoring
  • Live throughput graphs per stream to visualize the effects of WAN impairments on the traffic

  • Check the stability or performance of the network with various real-world WAN Impairments including:
    • Bandwidth control option to emulate various WAN link speeds (Modem, DSL, T1/E1/T3/E3/OC3/OC12 etc) – 1 Kbps up to 10 Gbps
    • Latency/Delay (0 milliseconds up to 1.5 seconds per stream (for 1Gbps link)/0.5 seconds per stream (for 10 Gbps link) – single delay, uniform, random distributions) to emulate various wired, wireless, and network elements
    • Packet Loss (loss rate % of total packets 0–100%)
    • Packet Reordering (Reorder between 0 and 100% of packets with a delay range of up to 2 seconds)
    • Packet Duplication (percentage of total packets duplicated 0 - 100%)
    • Logic Error Insertion (10^-1 to 10^-9 error rate) within Ethernet packet to emulate faulty network devices or interference

  • Automate stream impairments using Scheduler (CSV file) feature with Bandwidth (Mbps), Packet Loss (%), Latency (msec) impairment types
  • Maximum Frame Size supported – 2048 bytes
  • Supports both periodic and random impairments such as packet loss, packet reordering, packet duplication, and error insertion
  • Supports transmission of Ethernet Pause frame with user-defined quanta used to throttle Ethernet link overload
  • Command Line Interface for automated testing and remote accessibility
Hardware Interfaces...

Software Specification

Multi-streams WAN Emulation  - IPNetSim™ Single-stream WAN Emulation  - IPLinkSim™

Stream Definition

  • Hardware wire-speed filters (up to 16 links)
    • Packet Mode (field headers)
    • Raw Mode (bit level)

Parameters

  • IP Source and Destination Address Range
  • UDP Source and Destination Port Range
  • MAC Addresses
  • VLAN ID
  • MPLS Label

-NA-

WAN Emulation Parameters

  • Bandwidth control – 1 Kbps up to 10 Gbps
  • Latency/Delay
    • 0 milliseconds up to 1.25 seconds (1250 msec) per stream (for 1Gbps link)
    • 0 milliseconds up to 0.5 seconds (500 msec) per stream (for 10 Gbps link)
    • single delay, uniform, random distributions
  • Packet Loss Rate - 0–100%
  • Packet Reordering (Reorder between 0 and 100% of packets with a delay range of up to 2 seconds)
  • Packet Duplication Rate - 0 - 100%
  • Logic Error Insertion Rate - 10-1 to 10-9
  • Maximum Frame Size Supported – 2048 bytes

WAN Emulation Parameters

  • Bandwidth control - 10 Kbps up to 1000 Mbps
  • Latency/Delay
    • 0 milliseconds to 8 seconds (8000 milliseconds) (for 1G/10 Gbps link)
    • single delay, uniform, random distributions
  • Congestion Emulation with Background traffic (% of total bandwidth)
    • Link Utilization Rate –0 – 100%
    • Burst Size - 64 – 1,000,000 bytes
  • Packet Loss Rate - 0–100%
  • Packet Reordering Rate - 0-100% with Delay range of up to 8 seconds
  • Packet Duplication Rate - 0 - 100%
  • Logic Error Insertion Rate - 10-1 to 10-9
  • FCS Error insertion Rate - 10-1 to 10-9

Working Principle

PacketExpert™ is connected to the 2 end points of a WAN link. It can be configured to act either as a transparent bidirectional Ethernet link or a simple Ethernet bridge between 2 end points. The links are emulated between Port 1 (P1) and Port 2 (P2). The bandwidth can be controlled to simulate various WAN link speeds (RS232/DSL/Modem/T1/E1/T3/E3 etc.).

P1 -> P2 is one link and in the reverse direction, i.e., P2 -> P1 forms the other link. By default, P1 and P2 work in pass-through mode, and pass all frames across to the other port. Frames arriving at P1 are carried over to P2 and frames arriving at P2 are carried over to P1.


Transparent Bidirectional Link (P1-P2)/(P2-P1)

In multi-stream mode (IPNetSim™), user can define multiple streams in each direction (based on various header fields) to classify traffic into multiple streams. For each stream, a different set of WAN Emulation parameters can be applied, a single IPNetSim™ can emulate different WAN scenarios like Head Office to Data Center, Head Office to Branch Office etc.


IPNetSimon PNX100 (Multi-Stream/Single Stream WAN Emulator) connecting 2 network end points

WAN Emulation includes various real-world impairments such as Bandwidth, Latency, Packet-Loss, Error Insertion, Reordering, and Duplication, to check the performance of end equipment to real world impairments. These settings can be applied for the selected 16 unique streams on 1Gbps link and 4 unique streams on 10Gbps link independently in each direction.

Traffic (bidirectional streams) can be processed at wirespeed (1Gbps or 10Gbps). Bidirectional streams can be configured as a symmetrical (identical WAN impairments in both directions) or asymmetrical (different WAN impairments in each direction). WAN impairments can be configured independently for each stream. When WAN Emulation is started by the user, the impairments are introduced into the traffic as shown below.


Impairing Multi-streams over P1->P2 and P2->P1 Link

In single stream mode (IPLinkSim™), all the incoming traffic is streamed as a single link, which can be impaired with various link conditions such as Bandwidth Control, Background Traffic, Latency, Packet Loss, Packet Reordering, Packet Duplication, Error Insertion emulating real-world scenarios.


Impairing Single stream over P1->P2 and P2->P1 Link

Stream Definition

As depicted in the figure, IPNetSim™ includes a powerful “Stream Definition” feature that permits user to configure MAC, IP, VLAN, MPLS, UDP header fields to classify the traffic flows.

There are two actions for the stream definitions:

  • Stream: Packets matching the stream definition are sent as specified stream.
  • Bypass: Packets not matching the stream definitions are forwarded without emulation.

For each stream, user can define the stream parameters separately for each direction (P1 ->P2 and P1 <- P2). Streams can be defined in two modes – Packet Mode or Raw Mode.

In Raw mode, user can select a 120 byte window anywhere within the frame (starting from MAC Destination Address field till the end of Payload) to compare and identify the stream using raw hex data (120 bytes) and an offset. User can also define a corresponding 120 byte Hex mask, so that each bit can be set to ‘Compare’ or ‘don’t care’ conditions.  For each stream definition, offset can be set to any byte within the packet (from 0 to 2047) which gives flexibility to define any fields within any protocol headers, and even the payload


Stream Definitions in Raw Mode
(16 streams on 1G ports)

In Packet mode, each field can be compared against either a fixed value, a range of values or ANY value. Various packet field values can be edited directly as per the layer stack (L2/L3/L4) selected. Streams can be defined based on various fields like Source/Destination MAC Address, VLAN Id, MPLS Label, Source/Destination (IPv4 and IPv6) Addresses, Source/Destination UDP ports etc.


Stream Definitions in Packet Mode
(16 streams on 1G ports)

Stream Statistics

This option provides real-time transmission statistics for each stream (16 streams on 1 Gbps ports and 4 streams on 10 Gbps ports) over the emulated bi-directional link (P1-P2) / (P2-P1). The statistics include Tx and Rx frame statistics for each port, Dropped Packets (due to Bandwidth Control), No. of Packets with Errors, Dropped Packets (due to Packet Loss), Duplicated Packets, and Reordered Packets for varying durations.

IPNetSim Stream Statistics
(16 Streams on 1G ports)

IPNetSim Stream Statistics
(4 Streams on 10G ports)

IPNetSim Port Statistics

Stream Throughput Graph

The real-time Throughput of each stream, plotted as rate against time, is displayed in the form of a line graph. All the streams (16 streams on 1G ports and 4 streams on 10G ports) throughput can be viewed together, or user can select or deselect each stream to view separately. Graphing is supported from 5 seconds up to 7 days.

Screen Shot of IPNetSim streams Graph
(4 streams on 10G ports)

Screen Shot of IPNetSim streams Graph
(16 streams on 1G ports)

Link Statistics

This option provides real-time transmission statistics of the traffic over the emulated link (P2-P3)/(P3-P2) in each direction. The statistics parameters include Dropped Packets (Bandwidth Control), No. of Packets with Errors, Dropped Packets (Packet Loss), Duplicated Packets, Reordered Packets, and Background Traffic Bandwidth, for varying durations.

1G Link Statistics


10G Link Statistics

Link Throughput Graph

The graph displays the real-time Throughput of the link, plotted as rate against time, in the form of a line graph.  The Graph can be viewed for a single link or both the links together.

1G Link Graph

10G Link Graph

WAN Link Impairments

GL's IPNetSim™ WAN emulator is capable of emulating a WAN link, and introducing typical WAN impairments like Bandwidth Throttling, Latency, Jitter, Packet Loss, Packet Reordering, Packet Duplication, Packet Corruption, , Error Insertion, etc.

IPNetSim™ supports user defined streams to classify the traffic into up to 4 streams (for 10Gigabit link) and 16 streams (for 1Gigabit link), and applying separate impairments for each stream independently, thus emulating multiple WAN links within a single device.  It also supports bi-directional full wirespeed emulation i.e., approximately 30 million packets/sec in each direction aggregating to a total of 60 million packets/sec.

IPNetSim™ has the capability to better model real-world impairments such as Packet Loss, Packet Reordering, Packet Duplication, and Packet Error Insertion with Periodic and Random options, which are briefly discussed below:


Bidirectional WAN link Emulation

Packet Loss Impairment

Packet Loss can be introduced either as a rate as well as Manually. For both rate and manual, user can choose to drop a single packet or a burst of packets, at a time.

  • Rate: User can configure the Loss rate, and packets will be dropped at that rate. User can choose a periodic loss, where the packet drops will be regular and predictable, or random packet loss, where packets will be dropped randomly. For both periodic as well as random packet loss, the overall packet loss rate is maintained, but only the way the packets selected for dropping is changed

  • Manual Drop: This allows user to manually drop either a single packet or burst of packets at run time. This drop will be in addition to the rate loss, if active.

  • Single vs Burst Drop: In Single drop, only one packet will be dropped at a time. However, Real world Packet Loss is many times bursty in nature i.e. a bunch of consecutive packets are lost. This allows user to drop a burst of packets at a time instead of a single packet i.e. a bunch of consecutive packets are lost. To emulate such conditions, Burst Packet Loss can be configured

Packet Loss model configurations

Packet Reordering

Packet reordering model includes Periodic and Random Packet Reordering options.  In Periodic option, the packets are reordered at constant specified rate. While in Random option, packets are randomized for reordering, but still maintain the specified Reorder rate.

Once a packet has been selected for reordering, it will be held for a certain amount of time before being reinserted into the stream. The delay can be configured in terms of time (milliseconds), or Packet offset (number of frames). During Packet offset delay, the reordered frame will be held until the configured offset frames are received, before being reinserted into the stream. The offset selected at run time will be a random value between the maximum and minimum defined value range.

Packet Reorder model configurations

Packet Duplication

Packet Duplication model also includes Periodic and Random Packet Duplication options. In Periodic Duplication option, the packets are duplicated at specified rate periodically. In Random Duplication option, the selected packet is duplicated (based on the rate) randomly, but maintaining the duplication rate.

Packet Duplication model configurations

Packet Error Insertion

Packet Error Insertion model also includes Periodic and Random Packet Error Insertion options. In Periodic Error Insertion option, the start of frame and end of frame byte offsets specifies where exactly in the frame to inject errors. In the Random Error Insertion option, the packet will be randomly selected for error insertion (based on the rate), but the error insertion rate is maintained.

Packet Error Insertion model configurations

Impairment Scheduler

PacketExpert™ includes Scheduler feature to automate stream impairment. Scheduler reads Packet Loss(%), Latency(msec), and Bandwidth(Mbps) impairment values from a compatible csv file (generated from MTGA application) for both the link directions (P1→P2) and (P2→P1), which can be used to impair the selected stream. The applied impairment for each stream can be viewed graphically as well.

The following is the Bandwidth (Mbps) graph plotted against Time (Sec) for the selected stream as per the values defined in the csv file.

WAN Link Impairments

GL's IPLinkSim™ WAN link emulator is capable of emulating a WAN link, and introducing typical WAN impairments like Bandwidth Throttling, Latency, Jitter, Packet Loss, Packet Reordering, Packet Duplication, Packet Corruption, Congestion Emulation (Background Traffic), Logic and FCS Error Insertion.

IPLinkSim™ supports single stream only and applies the impairments to the traffic. In addition to the impairments in multi-stream (IPNetSim™) application, IPLinkSim™ also supports congestion emulation by generating background traffic. 

The link emulator has the capability to better model real-world impairments with Periodic and Random options, which are briefly discussed below:

Bidirectional WAN link Emulation

Packet Loss Impairment

Packet Loss can be introduced either as a rate as well as Manually. For both rate and manual, user can choose to drop a single packet or a burst of packets, at a time.

  • Rate: User can configure the Loss rate, and packets will be dropped at that rate. User can choose a periodic loss, where the packet drops will be regular and predictable, or random packet loss, where packets will be dropped randomly. For both periodic as well as random packet loss, the overall packet loss rate is maintained, but only the way the packets selected for dropping is changed

  • Manual Drop: This allows user to manually drop either a single packet or burst of packets at run time. This drop will be in addition to the rate loss, if active.

  • Single vs Burst Drop: In Single drop, only one packet will be dropped at a time. However, Real world Packet Loss is many times bursty in nature i.e. a bunch of consecutive packets are lost. This allows user to drop a burst of packets at a time instead of a single packet i.e. a bunch of consecutive packets are lost. To emulate such conditions, Burst Packet Loss can be configured

Packet Loss model configurations

Packet Reordering

Packet reordering model includes Periodic and Random Packet Reordering options.  In Periodic option, the packets are reordered at constant specified rate. While in Random option, packets are randomized for reordering, but still maintain the specified Reorder rate.

Once a packet has been selected for reordering, it will be held for a certain amount of time before being reinserted into the stream. The delay can be configured in terms of time (milliseconds), or Packet offset (number of frames). During Packet offset delay, the reordered frame will be held until the configured offset frames are received, before being reinserted into the stream. The offset selected at run time will be a random value between the maximum and minimum defined value range.

The Packet Reordering model also includes Manual Packet Reorder option to reorder a packet instantaneously at run time. When selected, it will immediately reorder a single packet.

Packet Reorder model configurations

Packet Duplication

Packet Duplication model also includes Periodic and Random Packet Duplication options. In Periodic Duplication option, the packets are duplicated at specified rate periodically. In Random Duplication option, the selected packet is duplicated (based on the rate) randomly, but maintaining the duplication rate.

A single packet can be duplicated instantaneously at run time with Manual Packet Duplication option.

Packet Duplication model configurations

Packet Error Insertion

Packet Error Insertion model also includes Periodic and Random Packet Error Insertion options. In Periodic Error Insertion option, the start of frame and end of frame byte offsets specifies where exactly in the frame to inject errors. In the Random Error Insertion option, the packet will be randomly selected for error insertion (based on the rate), but the error insertion rate is maintained.

But in Manual Error Insertion option, error is introduced into a single packet at run time manually.


Packet Error Insertion model configurations

Command Line Interface (CLI)

IPNetSim™ also supports Command line Interface (CLI) to access all the functionalities remotely such as  using TCL (Tool Command Language) and MAPS™ CLI Client/Server architecture.

IPNetSim™ can be configured as server-side application and on the client side, the standard TCL shell (tclsh85.exe) with IPNetSim™ specific functionalities can be used to communicate with the MAPS™ CLI Server, execute scripts, read back responses etc.

  • Capability of remote operation, automation and multi-site connectivity using TCL client and MAPS™ CLI server.
  • Scripts for MAC, VLAN, MPLS, IP and UDP layers testing
  • Multiple IPNetSim™ can be controlled remotely from single client application via MAPS™ CLI server.
  • Includes ready-to-use scripts for IPNetSim™ Multi Stream (16 streams on 1G ports and 4 streams on 10G ports) testing

Command line based TCL client

Maps CLI Server

Buyer's Guide

Webinar

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