CDMA 2000 Protocol Analyzer
CDMA technology has undergone many stages of revolution to offer improved voice and data service to the end users.
In order to deliver both voice as well as data service with very high transmission rate, CDMA network has incorporated many new nodes and protocols
with respect to old 2G or 2.5G networks (GSM and GPRS network).
The latest 3G technology, called CDMA 2000 1xEV-DV is capable of delivering integrated voice and simultaneous multimedia services at peak data rates
of 3.09 Mbps to the end subscriber.
IS-2000 is the signaling standard, which defines protocols for several critical 3G CDMA interfaces pertaining to packet transmission namely A1, A7, A9 and A11
(shown below). An IS-2000 compliant Mobile Station (MS) can select either packet-switched data (PSD) or circuit-switched data (CSD) transport. CSD has maximum
rate of 19.2 kbps and is delivered over traditional TDM circuits. PSD offers higher data rate for multimedia services. For each data session, a PPP (Point-to-Point
Protocol) session is created between the Mobile Station and the Packet Data Serving Node (PDSN).
The CDMA2000 network comprises of the Radio Access Network (RAN) and the Core Network. A Mobile Station accesses the CDMA2000 network through the
RAN. The RAN consists of the Air Link, Base Station Transceiver Subsystem (BTS), Base Station Controller (BSC), and a part of Packet Control Function (PCF). The
RAN maps the Mobile Station ID to a unique link layer identifier that is used to communicate with the PDSN, validate the MS for access service, and maintain the
established transmission links. The BTS connects to the BSC through un-channelized T1s and A-bis protocols (proprietary to a particular vendor) based on
The BSC routes PSD and CSD messages between the cell sites and the MSC. In addition, the BSC is also responsible for mobility management. It connects to
each Mobile Telephone Exchange (MTX) using channelized T1 lines for voice and circuit switched data; and to un-channelized T1 lines for signaling and control
messages to the PDSN using Ethernet protocols.
The PCF routes IP data packets between the MS and the PDSN. The PDSN is the Gateway from the RAN into the public and private networks. The PDSN can
act as either a standalone Network Access Server (NAS), Home Agent (HA) or a Foreign Agent (FA).
GL's CDMA Protocol Analyzer can be used to analyze and view protocols across A1 (between Base Station Controller and Mobile Switching Centre), A3 and
A7 (between two Base Station Controllers), A9 (between Base Station Controller and Packet Control Function), and A11 (between Packet Control Function and
PDSN) signaling interfaces as depicted in the above figure
- Between BSC and BTS: Abis
- Between BSC and BSC: A3 and A7 (also known as 'Ater')
- Between BSC and PCF: A9 (also known as 'Aquinter')
- Between BSC and MSC: A1 (also known as 'A')
- Between PCF and PDSN: A11 (also known as 'Aquater')
GL Communications supports the following types of CDMA analyzers:
- Real-time CDMA Analyzer (Pre-requisites: GL's field proven E1 or T1 internal cards or USB Laptop E1 or T1 external units, required licenses and Windows XP
(or higher) Operating System)
- Offline CDMA Analyzers (Pre-requisites: Hardware dongle and Windows XP (or higher) Operating System)
- Supports decoding of Ethernet-based protocols (across Aquinter and Aquater interfaces), ATM based protocols (across Ater interface), & HDLC based
protocols (across A interface).
- Allows customized filtering/searching of the captured data (real-time/offline) by setting various parameters such as VPI/VCI, Payload Type, MAC layer
address, Frame length, IP address, Port number and so on based on the interfaces chosen.
- Displays Summary, Detail, Hex-dump, Statistics, and Call Trace Views, the contents of this view can also be copied to clipboard.
- Summary View displays Device Number, Time Slots:, SubChannels, Frame Number, Time, Frame Length etc in a tabular format.
- Detailed View displays decodes of user selected frame from the Summary View.
- Hex dump view displays raw frame data as hexadecimal and ASCII octet dump, the contents of this view can also be copied to clipboard.
- Statistics View displays statistics based on frame count, byte count, frames/sec, bytes/sec and so on for the entire data capture.
- Call Detail Record View displays called/ calling number, released calls, call status, & more.
- Capability to export Summary View details to comma separated values (CSV) format subsequent import into a database or spreadsheet.
- Capability to export detail decode information to an ASCII.
- Ability to edit.ini file to configure the A3 A7 IOS related parameters in order to get proper decoding of protocols across A3A7 interface.
- Supports simultaneous decode of multiple streams of CDMA traffic on different T1/E1 channels.
- Any protocol field can be added to the summary view, filtering, and search features providing users more flexibility to monitor required protocol fields.
- Remote monitoring capability using GL's Network Surveillance System.
Additional feature supported by Real-time CDMA Analyzer
- Supports capturing and decoding of Ethernet-based protocols (across Aquinter and Aquater or A9 A11 interfaces), ATM based protocols
(across Ater or A3 A7 interfaces), & HDLC based protocols (across A or A1 interface).
- Multiple streams of CDMA traffic on various T1/E1 channels can be simultaneously decoded with different GUI instances.
- For A3 A7 interfaces,
- Captures, decodes, filters, and reassembles (with or without Inverse Multiplexing option) AAL-2 and AAL-5 frames in real-time,
from within the ATM cells according to user defined VPI/VCI.
- ATM raw data capturing requires user to specify timeslots, bit inversion, octet bit reversion, user/network side, ATM mapping, scrambling, and
inverse multiplexing options.
- Streams may be captured on the selected time slots (contiguous or non-contiguous) and on full bandwidth.
- Unscrambling of ATM cells based on SDH Xˆ43 + 1 algorithm.
- For A1,
- Frames captured can be filtered real-time based on length of frames (FISSU – Length as 5 and LSSU – Length as 7) can be set.
- Supports decoding of frames with FCS of 16 bits and 32 bits, or none.
- Data transmission rate starting from 8kbps to N*64kbps is supported.
- Timeslots selection can be contiguous or non-contiguous.
- Call Detail Recording feature includes data link groups that help in defining the direction of the calls in a given network.
and form logical groups comprised of unidirectional (either 'Forward' or 'Backward') data links.
- For A9 and A11,
- Frames captured can be filtered real-time based on Source IP address, Destination IP address, Mac Layer Address,
Source/Destination port no etc can be applied.
Additional features supported by Offline CDMA Analyzer:
- Trace files for analysis can be loaded through simple command-line arguments.
- Multiple trace files can be loaded simultaneously with different GUI instances for offline analysis.
The supported protocol interfaces in CDMA 2000 protocol analyzer are A1 Interface (ANSI), A1 Interface (ITU), A3/A7 Interface, A9 Interface and A11
||3GPP2 A.S0014-A, Version 2.0.1 July 2003
||ITU-T Q.711 (07/96)
||ITU-T Q.711 to Q.714
|Test & Network Management Messages (ITU)
||ITU-T Q.703, Q.704
|Test & Network Management Messages (ANSI)
||ANSI T1.111.4, ANSI T1.111.7
||3GPP2 A.S0015-C, Version 1,0 February2005
||Class B (ITU-T I.363.2)
||Class C & D (ITU-T I.363.5)
||3GPP2 A.S0016-C, Version 1,0 Date: February 2005
||3GPP2 A.S0017-A Version 2.0.1 July 2003
Click here to view the protocol glossary page for more information
Summary, Detail and Hex dump Views
The CDMA analyzer application is invoked from the main menu of GL's T1/E1 Analyzer for real-time analyzer. The offline CDMA analyzer is invoked from the
installation directory of the offline CDMA Analyzer. The analyzer displays Summary, Detail, Call Detail Record, Statistics and Hex dump View in different panes.
The Summary pane displays various information such as Frame Number, Time, Length, Message Types, IP source and destination addresses and so on. User
can select a frame in summary view to analyze and decode each frame in the Detail View. The Hex dump View displays the frame information in HEX and ASCII
octet dump format.
Screen Shot of Summary, Detail and Hexdump Views for A1 Interface
Screen Shot of Summary, Detail and Hexdump Views for A3A7 Interface
Screen Shot of Summary, Detail and Hexdump Views for A9A11 Interface
Real-time and Offline Analysis
Users can capture and analyze CDMA frames using real-time analyzer and record all or filtered traffic into a trace file. The recorded trace file can be used
for offline analysis and exported to a comma-delimited file, or ASCII file.
For A1 interface, CDMA raw data capturing requires user to specify timeslots, bit inversion, octet bit reversion, user/network side, and data transmission
rate options. In case of A3, A7, additional options such as ATM Mapping, scrambling, and inverse multiplexing options can be applied. In case of A9 A11
interface, Ethernet boards have to be specified on which data can be received.
Screen Shot of Timeslot selection for A1 Interface
Screen Shot of Timeslot selection for A3A7 Interface
Screen Shot of Timeslot selection for A9A11 Interface
Filtering and Search
Users can record all or filtered traffic into a trace file. Filtering and search capabilities adds a powerful dimension to the CDMA analyzer. These features
isolate required frames from all the captured frames in real-time/offline. This allows filtering according to Data Link, MTP2, BSAP, SCCP, ATM, A3 & A7 IOS
Application Layer, AAL2, A9 & A11 IOS Application Layer, IP, TCP/UDP and more.
For A1, real-time capturing filter based on length of frames can be set. For A9 and A11, Ethernet based real-time capturing filter capabilities based on
Source/Destination IP address, Mac Layer Address, and more can be applied. Users can specify custom VPI, VCI, and PT type values to filter frames during
real-time capture for A3 A7 interfaces. Similarly, Search capability helps user to search for a particular frame based on specific search criteria.
Screen Shot of Setting the Filtering Criteria
Screen Shot of Setting Real-time Filtering Criteria for A1 interface
Screen Shot of Setting Real-time Filtering Criteria for A3 A7 interfaces
Screen Shot of Setting Real-time Filtering Criteria for A9 A11 interfaces
Reassembly in CDMA - A3 & A7 Interface
Using reassembly option user can specify VPI /VCI value to reassemble as per the Segmentation and Reassembly rules defined by the specified AAL type.
It multiplexes ATM cells as per the user specified VPI/VCI/AAL type into CPS or SAR frames. ATM cells not satisfying the user specification will be reassembled
as per the default specification.
Screen Shot of Capture Filter and Reassembly Options Window
Call Detail Record & Statistics View
Important call specific parameters like call status, release cause, parties involved and more are displayed in Call Detail Record View. Call traces can also be
logically grouped, with each group comprising of unidirectional (either 'Forward' or 'Backward') data links (applicable for A1 interface only). Additionally, users
are provided with the option to search a particular call detail record from the captured traces.
Statistics is an important feature available in CDMA analyzer and can be obtained for all frames both in real-time as well as offline mode. Various statistics
can be obtained to study the performance and trend in the CDMA network, based on protocol fields and different parameters.
Screen Shot of Statistics and Call Detail Record View for A1 Interface
Screen Shot of Statistics and Call Detail Record View for A3A7 Interface
Enhanced Trace Saving Options
Users can control the captured trace files by saving the trace using different conventions such as trace files with user-defined prefixes, trace file with
date-time prefixes, and slider control to indicate the total number of files, file size, frame count, or time limit. This feature also allows the captured frames
to be saved into a trace file based on the filtering criteria set using display filter feature.
Screen Shot of Enhanced Trace Saving Options Window
Save/Load All Configuration Settings
Protocol Configuration window provides a consolidated interface for all the important settings required in the analyzer. This includes various options such as
protocol selection, startup options, stream/interface selection, filter/search criteria and so on. Any protocol field can be added to the summary view, filtering,
and search features from this GUI providing the users more flexibility to monitor required protocol fields. All the configuration settings done can be saved to a file
and then loaded from a configuration file. Users may also just revert to the default settings using the default option.
Screen Shot of Save/Load All Configuration Settings Window
Bridge and Monitor Connections
Please Note1: The XX in the Item No. refers to the hardware platform, listed at the bottom of the Buyer's Guide, which
the software will be running on. Therefore, XX can either be ETA or EEA (Octal/Quad Boards), PTA or PEA (tProbe Units),
UTA or UEA (USB Units), HUT or HUE (Universal Cards), and HDT or HDE (HD cards) depending upon the hardware.
* Specifications and features subject to change without notice.
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