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Glossary of Terms

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  • A Law - A standard compression algorithm, used in digital communications systems of the European digital hierarchy, to optimize, i.e., modify, the dynamic range of an analog signal for digitizing.

  • AFT - Abbreviation for Automated File Transceiver. GL software that can use the PC's sound device and transmit and record voice files. Normally used in GL's Voice Quality Testing (VQT) environments.

  • Bandwidth - The transmission capacity of a telecommunications link (e.g., 64 kbps).

  • Central Office (CO) - Location where telecommunications subscribers are connected to the local exchange carrier to complete the 'local loop.'

  • Circuit Switching - Telecommunications routing system in which a signal travels along a dedicated path. It is the opposite of 'packet switching,' in which digital information travels along multiple paths.

  • Data Channel - The channel through which data is transmitted in CAS mode.

  • Degraded File - Term which refers to the voice file that has been recorded at a point within a network during Voice Quality Testing (VQT).

  • Delay - The wait time between two events. May refer to the time between when a packet is sent to when it is received in the IP world.

  • DCOSS - The Digital Central Office Switch Simulator (DCOSS) converts a Pentium PC (portable, tower, rack-mount) into a digital central office switch simulator, PBX and switch, complete with T1, E1, and POTS Interfaces.

  • De-Multiplexing - The process of retrieving data from a multiplexed signal.

  • E1 Line - A E1 line can carry 32 digitized voice channels, or it can carry data at a rate of 2.048 megabits per second.

  • Error Insertion - The Error Insertion applications permits single, fixed, automatic, and random error insertion into the incoming bit stream.

  • Extended Superframe - 24 frames are bundled in a certain format and transmitted

  • Frame - Frame is a array of bits where signals and data are encrypted in a particular fashion.

  • Frame Relay - An interface protocol for statistically multiplexed packet-switched data communications in which (a) variable-sized packets (frames) are used that completely enclose the user packets they transport, and (b) transmission rates are usually between 56 kb/s and 1.544 Mb/s (the T-1 rate).

  • Frequency - The number of complete cycles per unit of time.

  • Gaussian Noise - Gaussian noise is characterized by having random signal values whose amplitude values follow a Gaussian distribution.

  • Gateway - An entrance and exit into a communications network. Usually refers to the entrance and exit into an IP network.

  • Gap - A non-standard term describing the amount of voice (usually in milliseconds) that 1 packet contains in the IP world.

  • HUB - A network device that sends incoming information to all ports on the device.

  • HDLC - Abbreviation for High Level Data Link control. A Link-Level protocol used to facilitate reliable point-to-point transmission of a data packet. Note: A subset of HDLC, known as 'LAP-B,' is the Layer-two protocol for CCITT Recommendation X.25.

  • IP - Abbreviation for Internet Protocol.

  • Internal Delay - It is the driver delay taking place within T1/E1 card

  • ISDN - Abbreviation for Integrated Services Digital Network. An integrated digital network in which the same time-division switches and digital transmission paths are used to establish connections for different services. ISDN services include telephone, data, electronic mail, and facsimile.

  • Jitter - The variation in delay across a network. Term generally used in the VoIP environment describing the variation in delay from packet to packet.

  • Loop Delay - The delay measured between a communications channel running from a switching center or an individual message distribution point to the user terminal.

  • Loop Back - A method of performing transmission tests of access lines from the serving switching center, which method usually does not require the assistance of personnel at the served terminal.

  • Latency - A term describing the wait time or delay time. Generally referred to the time it takes to pass information through a network.

  • Multiplexing - To sequentially incorporate several data streams into a single data stream in such a manner that each may later be recovered intact.

  • MOS - Abbreviation for Mean Opinion Score. Generally referring to the voice quality score through a network.

  • µ Law - A standard analog signal compression algorithm, used in digital communications systems of the North American digital hierarchy, to optimize, i.e. , modify, the dynamic range of an analog signal prior to digitizing.

  • Noise - An undesired disturbance within the frequency band of interest; the summation of unwanted or disturbing energy introduced into a communications system from man-made and natural sources.

  • Off Line Analysis - The absence of connection to another computer. In off-line analysis captured information can be analysed which has been saved to disk in real time analysis.

  • Packets - Segments of data bundled together for efficient digital transmission

  • PESQ - Abbreviation for Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality. ITU-standard (P.862) algorithm for testing voice quality.

  • PSQM - Abbreviation for Perceptual Speech Quality Measurement. ITU-standard (P.861) algorithm for testing voice quality.

  • PAMS - Abbreviation for Perceptual Analysis / Measurement System. ITU-based standard (P.800) algorithm for testing voice quality.

  • Proxy - An application that allows wasy connection based on limited information to two known network parties.

  • QOS - Abbreviation for Quality of Service.

  • Real Time Analysis - The real-time mode of operation is used to capture stream of frames on the selected contiguous or non-contiguous timeslots or full bandwidth of T1/E1, 24 or 32 channels.

  • Round Trip Delay - It is the delay taking place between the input and output of a system or network.

  • Reference File - Term which refers to the voice file that has been sent through a network during Voice Quality Testing (VQT)

  • Router - A device used in the IP world that is used as an interface between two networks. This device routes information in an intelligent manner.

  • RTP - Abbreviation for Real-Time Transport Protocol. A standard for sending real-time multimedia over IP in packets.

  • RTCP - Abbreviation for Real-Time Control Protocol. A packet used in the IP world that provides information concerning the quality of service.

  • RTP Core (Hardware or Software) - An application that allows a user to send RTP traffic using the GL Packet Series products.

  • Signalling - The process of transferring information between two parts of a telephone network to control the establishment of communications between long distance carrier terminal points, and customer equipment required for voice grade dedicated circuits.

  • SS7 - A common-channel signaling system defined by the CCITT in the 1988 Blue Book, in Recommendations Q.771 through Q.774.

  • Superframe - 12 frames are bundled in a certain format and transmitted

  • Switch - An intelligent device used to route packets (information) to specific ports based on MAC address.

  • SIP - Abbreviation for Session Initiated Protocol. An application layer protocol for the call processing over an IP-based network.

  • Signal-to-Noise Ratio - The ratio of the usual signal that is being transmitted to the noise or undesired signal.

  • SIP Core - An application that allows a user to control call processing using the GL Packet Series products.

  • STM-1 - Abbreviation for Synchronous Transport Module 1. Standard for transmission over OC-3 optical fiber at 155.52 Mbps.

  • T1 Line - A T1 line can carry 24 digitized voice channels, or it can carry data at a rate of 1.544 megabits per second.

  • T3 Line - A T3 line is a super high-speed connection capable of transmitting data at a rate of 45 million bps (bits per second). A T3 line represents a bandwidth equal to about 672 regular voice-grade telephone lines, which is wide enough to transmit full-motion, real-time video, and very large databases over a busy network.

  • Timeslot - A particular time interval during which data packets will be sent.

  • Voice Frequency (VF) - Pertaining to those frequencies within that part of the audio range that is used for the transmission of speech. (188) Note 1: In telephony, the usable voice-frequency band ranges from approximately 300 Hz to 3400 Hz. Note 2: In telephony, the bandwidth allocated for a single voice-frequency transmission channel is usually 4 kHz, including guard bands.

  • VQT - Abbreviation for Voice Quality Testing. GL offers a wide variety of the VQT options for testing various networks including, T1/E1/T3/OC-3, VoIP, Wireless, Landline, etc.

  • VQA - Abbreviation for Voice Quality Assessment. See VQT for further information.





















 
 
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