Test Solutions for For Emergency Services
(911 & E911 Services)
Emergency services are the backbone of a civilized society. Police, fire, and ambulance are contacted by a single emergency telephone number. In the US that single number is 911. In other countries, there may be a different unique number or several numbers. In the European Union, the number is 112, in others 999, and so on. A person at a Public Service Access Point, or PSAP, usually a governmental agency/service close to the location of the emergency answers the call and dispatches 1st Responders as required. PSTN, VoIP, and Wireless carriers have developed methods for voice connection to the right PSAP and to provide accurate location data necessary for dispatch. The above diagram shows a simplified diagram of the current 911 and E-911 network architecture.
Call flow starts with the carrier network routing the voice call to a 911 Selective Router, which in turn routes the call to the responsible PSAP. This routing is based on an 8, 10, 20 digit # or an equivalent “key” provided by the carrier network to the 911 Selective Router. The PSAP attendant in addition to answering the emergency call also uses the 8, 10, or 20 digit # or the equivalent “key” to access many location databases - Selective Router (SR), Master Street Address Guide, or the Automatic Location Identifier (ALI) - that provide more specific location of the caller (street address, building floor, suite, latitude/longitude, etc.). The abbreviated digits/key are termed ANI, pANI, or ESRK/ESQK, depending on if the call is from a PSTN, VoIP, or Wireless carrier.
Automatic Number Identification (ANI) is an 8 or 10-digit landline caller telephone #, that in the conventional PSTN, is an index into the Selective Router (SR) database for the responsible PSAP # and the Master Street Address Guide (MSAG) database for the actual street address of the caller. Wireless callers have no fixed location, therefore a Pseudo Automatic Number Identification (pANI) is provided. The pANI is a code for the location of the wireless caller by cell site/sector in the Automatic Location Identifier (ALI) database. VoIP uses something similar called ESRK/ESQK (Enhanced Services Routing Key) for identifying the specific PSAP # and the caller location. Each carrier network is responsible for maintaining location data for their subscribers, updating the ALI database, and nearest PSAP #, all indexed to the ANI, pANI, ESRK/ESQK codes.
In all networks, the SR determines the correct PSAP to connect to, by interrogating databases, and completes the voice connection to PSAP attendant, via analog, T1, FGD-OS, T1/PRI, or SS7 circuits. In the analog, T1, FGD-OS connection cases, ANI, pANI, ESRK/ESQK numbers are transmitted in-band to the PSAP via MF (multi frequency) digits or Enhanced MF if more than 10 digits are required. In the T1/PRI or SS7 connectivity case, these numbers or keys are transmitted via ISDN or ISUP messaging fields.
Test Solutions for 911 Network
Over PSTN (Using CAMA, Analog, CAS, and FGD-OS)
CAMA - Centralized Automatic Message Accounting is a special analog trunk originally developed for long-distance billing but is now mainly used for emergency call services: 911 and Enhanced 9-1-1 (E-911). CAMA trunk connects a carrier switch directly to the Selective Router (SR), a special 911 Switch that in turn connects to many PSAPs.
CAMA Signaling Simulation and Monitoring is accomplished using GL's MAPS™ CAS Emulator and MAPS™ FXO FXS Emulator hardware and software applications. Similarly, MAPS™ ISDN Emulator and MAPS™ SS7 Emulator can perform 911 messaging and analysis over ISDN/PRI and SS7. All of these are strictly over a PSTN/TDM network.
GL's MAPS™ CAS Emulator can be used to simulate CAMA trunks connected to the 911 Selective Router. CAMA type signaling trunks are used to provide the calling party's Automatic Number Identification (ANI) to the Selective Router. The Selective Router then routes the call to the appropriate Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP) based on the calling party's location.
Both analog and digital (T1) CAMA simulations are supported. Analog simulation requires an additional channel bank specially configured for CAMA.
Also, GL's MAPS™ CAS Emulator application can be configured for emulation of 911 services. CAMA emulation capabilities include - seizure and wink start detection, onhook and offhook detection and MF digit (ANI) generation/detection.
Drive Test Voice, and Data Services for Quality (Emergency services)
The Wireless Drive-Test solution includes GL’s VQuad™ with Dual UTA HD supporting call control of variety of mobile device networks – from 2G to 4G LTE and beyond, including the capability of sending/recording voice, testing video conferencing, and testing a variety of data over the mobile devices, while analyzing their performance.
A GPS option permits time synchronization between two geographically separated systems as well as location information for drive testing. With an added wireless network connection, all functionality can be remotely controlled and all results transmitted to remote locations can be accessed on-the-go. You can simply load configurations and start/stop the tests, grab test results and stream files to the command center locations.
CAMA Simulation for 911 Systems
CAMA Trunks Connected to 911 Switch
CAMA type signaling is used for sending the calling party's Automatic Number Identification (ANI) to the 911 selective router.
The ANI in the form of MF digits can be defined as: KP-I-NXX-XXXX-ST where,
|KP : indicates a KP (key pulse) signal
I : information digit
NXX : the prefix of the telephone number (exchange)
XXXX : the caller's PBX station number
ST : indicates a ST (start pulse)
The below figure illustrates a typical FXO CAMA signaling scenario:
Signalling sequence for CAMA type trunks connected to the E-911 switch
The MAPS™ CAS can act as the CAMA trunk connected to the 911 selective router, and emulate all the signalling messages as depicted in the above call flow.
Digital CAMA Simulation
Analog CAMA Simulation
Below is the screenshot of MAPS™ CAS Emulator displaying a real-time signaling sequence of the CAMA type trunk connected to the 911 Selective Router.
FXO CAMA Simulation Message Sequence
CAMA Trunks Connected to the PSAP
As an alternative configuration in Private Exchange Branches (PBX), where the CAMA trunks are connected directly to the PSAP, the ANI is defined as: KP-NPD-NXX-XXXX-ST where,
KP : indicates KP (key pulse) signal
NPD : numbering plan digit representing the area code of the PBX caller who originated the 9-1-1 call
NXX : the prefix of the telephone number (exchange)
XXXX : the caller's PBX station number
ST : indicates a SP (start pulse)
Signalling Sequence for CAMA type trunks connected to the PSAP
Monitoring of CAMA Type Trunks
The tProbe™ FXO port can be tapped onto CAMA-type circuits for non-intrusive monitoring of 911 service. Monitoring capabilities include seizure and wink start detection, onhook and offhook detection and MF digit (calling party ANI) detection. A normal analog call is routed based on the destination (called party) phone number. However, 911 calls are routed based on the calling party number.
FXO Monitoring of CAMA type trunks using MAPS™ FXO FXS
Below screenshot of MAPS™ FXO FXS Emulator displaying a real-time ladder diagram of the CAMA signalling sequence captured non-intrusively at the FXO line. Typically, there are 5 CAMA signalling types based on the number of digits in ANI, these include, 7-digit transmission (kp-0-nxx-xxxx-st), 8-digit transmission (KP-npd-nxx-xxxx-st), 10-digit transmission (kp-0-npa-nxx-xxxx-st), 20-digit transmission (kp-0-npa-nxx-xxxx-st-kp-yyy-yyy-yyyy-st), and kp-2-st (indicates a failure to receive ANI).
Call monitoring process of a 10-digit ANI transmission
The application also provides a live graphical view of the captured line voltage with the help of User Defined Graphs.
Line Voltage Graph
Drive Testing for Voice/Data Calls Quality
GL's Wireless VQT - Drive Testing product provides a means to perform long term voice and data quality tests on a wireless network including the ones that are meant for military and emergency services. The Wireless Drive-Test solution includes support for call control of variety of mobile device networks – from legacy 2G to 4G LTE and beyond, including the capability of sending/recording voice, testing video conferencing, and testing a variety of data over the mobile devices, while analyzing their performance.
All hardware associated with the GL's Wireless VQT Drive Test Tool, is conveniently packaged in a custom enclosure such that users can transport it within a vehicle, just plug into the cigarette lighter (for power), connect to the PC Laptop using the USB connections, and start the test. This complete and self-contained hardware, software, and accessories package product focuses on automated Wireless VQT Drive Testing from within a vehicle. The portable package can house up to four wireless phones, a graphical computing and measurement platform, and mapping software.
Up to four mobile phones/PTT devices can be supported simultaneously within a single enclosure, all conveniently controlled from a single laptop running the GL's VQuad™ software. Both the GL's VQuad™ and VQT applications can be remotely accessed via the Internet and the audio voice files may be streamed to the remote location. Results are logged and statistics are provided for a complete understanding of the wireless network.
Results stamped with GPS coordinates and GPS time
As an additional feature to GL's Wireless VQT Drive Test solution, a GPS receiver can be included so that all results are stamped with GPS location coordinates and GPS time. GPS stamping occurs when a mobile call is generated and when a mobile call is disconnected (or dropped), when a voice file is recorded, and when an RTD measurement is made.
The logged GPS information can be imported to most GPS mapping software packages for an overall graphical understanding of the results. Thus, your drive-test results can be superimposed on a map providing you with VQT ratings, mobile phone status, and RTD results.
Please Note: The XX in the Item No. refers to the hardware platform, listed at the bottom of the Buyer's Guide, which the software will be running on. Therefore, XX can either be ETA or EEA (Octal/Quad Boards), PTA or PEA (tProbe Units), UTA or UEA (USB Units), HUT or HUE (Universal Cards), and HDT or HDE (HD cards) depending upon the hardware.